Carper's Four Ways of Knowing and Scholarliness in Nursing

1610 words 7 pages
Carper Four Ways of Knowing and Different Types of Nursing Theories
Danielle Berg, Hailey Hunter, Anh Nguyen, Michael Seeley & Christopher Wilson
Maryville University
Nursing Theory
Dr. Deitra Watson
September 06, 2013

Carper Four Ways of Knowing and Different Types of Nursing Theories
It is essential in nursing to continue learning and applying knowledge to the everyday practice. In doing so, it is important to understand how to organize, test, and apply knowledge to nursing. Barbara Carper identified four fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing which are necessary for the teaching and learning of nursing. Carper's four fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing are defined as empirical, ethical, personal and
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Theory, inquiry, and evidence are closely linked to the practice of nursing. Each pattern of knowing can be considered a type of theory, and the way of researching and developing each type of theory provide distinct sources of data for evidence-based nursing practice. Carper’s four ways of knowing are all needed in order for there to be scholarliness in nursing. Different kinds of nursing theories provide different ways of examining, critiquing and interpreting evidence which is crucial in evidence-based holistic nursing practice.

Types of Nursing Theories
There are essentially three types of nursing theories intertwined into nursing practice. Theories are defined as areas of where knowledge and expressions are organized into a meaningful whole (Meleis, 2012). Three main types of theories occur in the nursing discipline; Grand theory, middle-range theory and situation-specific theory. The theories in nursing are categorized based on their concepts and ideas. Theories are useful in the nursing discipline to describe events and trends, explain relationships, and provide a framework for interventions and to predict outcomes (Meleis, 2012).
Grand theories are all-encompassing conceptual structures, which are likely to include views on person, health and environment to create a perspective of nursing. This most abstract level of theory has established a knowledge base for the discipline and is essential for further knowledge development in the nursing