A Cis to Trans Conversion
Maleic acid and Fumaric acid are both compounds belonging to the carboxylic acids class. In this experiment, we formed the two isomers of 1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid and tested the solubility and melting points of both of these products. Both of these compounds involve a carbon-carbon double bond that is composed of one σ bond and one π bond. The overlap of sp2 hybrid orbitals forms the σ bond, and one empty p orbital forms the π bond. This process is illustrated in the figure below:
Sp2 hybrid orbitals: Unhybridized p orbital:
(3 σ bonds) (1 π bond)
_1 _1 _1 _1 Molecules with double bonds are alkenes, and they have restricted rotation around the double bond so they tend to form the cis and trans geometric …show more content…
4. Fumaric acid has a higher melting point because it has a longitudinal structure allowing for more efficient hydrogen bonding with surrounding molecules, thus it has stronger intermolecular forces than maleic acid so melting requires more energy to separate the molecules. The structure of maleic acid more confined so the hydrogen bonds are more likely to interact with each other, rather than with the surrounding molecules. Maleic acid is more soluble in water than fumaric acid because it is polar and fumaric acid is non-polar. Since water is also polar, it is going to dissolve the maleic acid due to dipole-dipole forces, whereas the non-polar fumaric acid will not dissolve.
5. The first molecule consists of a negitavely charged oxygen atom because it is bonded to only one other atom and it has three lone electron pairs. This gives the oxygen atom seven electrons, but it only needs six to be stable so the extra electron makes the atom more negative. The second molecule is bonded to two other atoms with one double and one single bond, as well as one lone electron pair. Thus, there are only five electrons surrounding the oxygen atom but it requires six in order to have a neutral charge. Due to the missing electron, the molecule is charged positevly.
6. Refer to attached sheet of paper.
7. Repulsion - when alike charges are found near each other, they move to opposite directions in order to escape each other because they are